LGBT Mental Health Bibliography

Compiled by
Jack Drescher, M.D.


Petros Levounis, MD, Jack Drescher, MD, Mary Barber, MD, (2012) The LGBT Casebook. American Psychiatric Publishing. Purchase through the APPI Bookstore.

Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation (Download PDF...)

Bieschke, K.J., Perez, R.M. & DeBord, K.A., eds. (2006). Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients, Second Edition.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association Books.  

Drescher, J. (2002). Ethical issues in treating gay and lesbian patients.  Psychiatric Clinics North America, 25(3):605-621.  

Drescher, J., D’Ercole, A. & Schoenberg, E., eds. (2003). Psychotherapy with Gay Men and Lesbians:  Contemporary Dynamic Approaches.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Drescher, J. (2006). Gay and Depressed:  Combined pharmacotherapy and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy with a depressed, gay man.  In:  DSM-IV TR Casebook:  Experts Tell How They Treated Their Own Patients, eds. R.L. Spitzer, M. First, J.B.W. Williams & M. Gibbons.  American Psychiatric Press, pp. 163-178.  

Drescher, J., McCommon, B.H. & Jones, B.E. (2008). Treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients.  In:  APPI Textbook of Psychiatry, Fifth Edition, eds. R.E. Hale, S.C. Yudofsky & G. Gabbard.  Washington, DC:  APPI Press, pp. 1471-1487.

Drescher, J. (2009). Handle with care:  The psychoanalysis of a touchy case, J. Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 13(1):4–20. 

Guss, J.R. & Drescher, J., eds. (2000). Addictions in the Gay and Lesbian Community.  New York:  The Haworth Press.  

Guthrie, C. (2006). Disclosing the therapist’s sexual orientation: The meaning of disclosure in working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual patients. J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 10(1):363-77.

Halkitis, P.N., Wilton, L. & Drescher, J., eds. (2005). Barebacking:  Psychosocial  & Public Health Approaches.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Hellman, R.E. & Drescher, J., eds. (2004). Handbook of LGBT Issues in Community Mental Health.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.

Herlands, N. (2006). Gay patient, gay analyst: Is it all about sex? Clinical case notes from a contemporary Freudian view. J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy,10(1):95-108.

Hunter, S. & Hickerson, J.C. (2003). Affirmative Practice:  Understanding and Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons.  Washington, DC:  NASW Press.  

Kooden, H. (1994). The gay male therapist as an agent of socialization.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 2(2):39-64.  

Lesser, R.C. (1999). Discussion of Gay patient-gay therapist (A case report of Stephen).  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(1):45-51.  

Levounis, P. (1999). Gay patient-gay therapist:  A case report of Stephen.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(1):11-22.  

Lewes, K. (1999). Unspoken questions:  Unsayable answers.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(1):33-44.  

Meyers, L. I. (2000). Gay or straight?  Why do we really want to know?  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 4(2):47-59.  

O’Leary, J. (1997). A heterosexual male therapist’s journey of self discovery:  Wearing a “straight” jacket in a gay men’s bereavement group.  In:  Hope and Mortality:  Psychodynamic Approaches to AIDS and HIV, ed. M. Blechner.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press, pp. 209-220.

Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2004). Clinical issues in working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training, 41:227–246.

Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2006). Social anxiety in young gay men. J. Anxiety Disorders, 20:996–1015.

Ritter, K.Y. & Terndrug, A.I. (2002). Handbook of Affirmative Psychotherapy with Lesbians and Gay Men.  New York:  Guilford.  

Russell, G.M. (2006), Different ways of knowing: The complexities of therapist disclosure. J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 10(1):79-94.

Schwartz, A.E. (1999). A place of recognition:  Commentary on a case report (Gay patient-gay therapist).  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(1):23-31.  

Vaughan, S. (1999). The hiding and revelation of lesbian desire in lesbians:  The lasting legacy of developmental traumas.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(2):81-90.

Wainberg, M.L., Kolodny, A.J. & Drescher, J. eds. (2006). Crystal Meth and Men Who Have Sex with Men:  Community and Public Health Responses.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.


Anhalt, K., & Morris, T. L. (1999). Developmental and adjustment issues of gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 1:215-230.

Cohler, B. J. & Galatzer-Levy, R. M. (2000). The Course of Gay and Lesbian Lives.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.  

D’Augelli, A. R. (2002). Mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth ages 14 to 21. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 7:433-456.

Diamond, L. M. (2000). Passionate friendships among adolescent sexual-minority women. J. Research on Adolescence, 10:191-209.

Drescher, J. (2002). Invisible Gay Adolescents:  The Developmental Narratives of Gay Men.  Adolescent Psychiatry, 26:73-94.  

Drescher, J. (2002). Causes and becauses:  On etiological theories of homosexuality.  In:  Rethinking Psychoanalysis and the Homosexualities (The Annual of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 30).  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press, pp. 57-68.  

Grant JM. Outing Age 2010: Public Policy Issues Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Elders . National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute, 2009.

Remafedi, G. (1987). Male Homosexuality:  The adolescent’s perspective.  Pediatrics, 79:326-330.  

Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (2006). Sexual identity development among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. J. Sex Research, 43:46-58.

Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R.M. & Sanchez, J. (2009).  Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults.  Pediatrics, 123(1):346-352.



DeCecco J., ed. (1988). Gay Relationships.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Glazer, D.F. & Drescher, J., eds. (2001). Gay and Lesbian Parenting.  New York:  The Haworth Press.  

Herdt, G. & Kertzner, R. (2006). I do, but I can’t: The impact of marriage denial on the mental health and sexual citizenship of lesbians and gay men in the United States.  Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3(1):33-49.

Kirkpatrick, M., Smith, C. & Roy, R. (1981). Lesbian mothers and their children:  A comparative survey.  American J. Orthopsychiatry, 51:545-551.  

Kurdek, L. A. (2004). Are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples really different from heterosexual married couples? J. Marriage & Family, 66: 880-900.

Mamo, L. (2007). Queering Reproduction:  Achieving Pregnancy in the Age of Technoscience.  Durham:  Duke University Press.  

Patterson, C. J. (2000). Family relationships of lesbians and gay men. J. Marriage & the Family, 62:1052-1069.

Patterson, C. J. (2001). Families of the lesbian baby boom:  Maternal mental health and child adjustment.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 4(3/4):91-107.

Savin-Williams, R.C. (2001). Mom, Dad, I’m Gay:  How Families Negotiate Coming Out.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.  

Stacey, J. & Biblarz, T. J. (2001). (How) Does sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 65:159-183.



Cabaj, R.P. & Stein, T.S., eds. (1996). Textbook of Homosexuality and Mental Health.  Washington, D.C.:  American Psychiatric Press.  

DeCecco, J. & Parker, D., eds. (1995). Sex, Cells and Same-Sex Desire.  The Biology of Sexual Preference.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Drescher, J. & Byne, W. (2009). Homosexuality, gay and lesbian identities, and homosexual behavior.  In:  Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th Edition, eds. B.J. Sadock, V.A. Sadock & P. Ruiz.  Baltimore, MD:  Williams and Wilkins, pp. 2060-2090.

McWhirter, D.P.M., Sanders, S.A. & Reinisch, J.M., eds. (1990). Homosexuality/Heterosexuality:  Concepts of Sexual Orientation.  New York:  Oxford University Press. 



Abelove, H. (1985). Freud, male homosexuality, and the Americans.  In:  The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, eds. H. Abelove, M.A. Barale, & D. Halperin.  New York:  Routledge, 1993, pp. 381-393. 

Ashley, K. (2002). An interview with Stuart E. Nichols, Jr., MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(4):55-71.

Barber, M.E. (2003). An Interview with Nanette Gartrell, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7(4):35-47.

Barber, M.E. (2008). An Interview with David E. Kessler, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 12(3):245-257.

Bayer, R. (1981). Homosexuality and American Psychiatry:  The Politics of Diagnosis.  New York:  Basic Books.  

Bayer, R. (1987). Politics, science, and the problem of psychiatric nomenclature:  A case study of the American Psychiatric Association referendum on homosexuality.  In:  Scientific Controversies:  Case Studies in the Resolution and Closure of Disputes in Science and Technology, eds. H. Tr. Engelhardt Jr. & A. L. Caplan.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, pp. 381-400.

Bérubé, A. (1990). Coming Out Under Fire:  The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two.  New York:  Plume.  

Boswell, J. (1980). Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.  

Boswell, J. (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe.  New York:  Villard Books.  

Bullough, V. (1979). Homosexuality:  A History.  New York:  Meridian.  

Cass, V.C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation:  A theoretical model.  J. Homosexuality, 4:219-235.

Chauncey, G. (1994). Gay New York:  Gender, Urban Culture and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940.  New York:  Basic Books.  

Drescher, J. (2002). Don’t ask, don’t tell:  A gay man’s perspective on the psychoanalytic training experience between 1973 and 1991.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):45-55.  

Drescher, J. (2003). An interview with Robert L. Spitzer, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7(3):97-111.

Drescher, J. (2006). An interview with Lawrence Hartmann, MD.  J. Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 10(1):123-137.

Drescher, J. & Merlino, J.P., eds. (2007). American Psychiatry and Homosexuality:  An Oral History. New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Drescher, J. (2008). A history of homosexuality and organized psychoanalysis.   J. American Academy of Psychoanalysis & Dynamic Psychiatry, 36(3):443-460. 

Hire, R.O. (2001). An interview with Frank Rundle, M.D.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 5(2):83-97.

Hire, R.O. (2002). An interview with Robert Jean Campbell III, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(3): 81-96.

Kameny, F. (2009).  How it all started.  J. Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 13(2):76-81.  

Leli, U. (2002). The experience of undergoing psychoanalytic training as an openly gay candidate—A personal note.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):57-65.  

Lewes, K. (2002). Discussion of “Being gay and becoming a psychoanalyst:  Across three generations.”  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):77-84.  

Lingiardi, V. & Drescher, J. eds. (2003). The Mental Health Professions and Homosexuality:  International Perspectives.  New York:  Haworth Press.  

Lynch, P.E. (2003). An interview with Richard C. Pillard, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7(4):63-70.

Mass, L. (1990). Homosexuality as Behavior and Identity:  Dialogues of the Sexual Revolution, Vol. 2.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.   

Merlino, J. (2001). An interview with Bertram H. Schaffner, M.D.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 5(1):85-99.

Mitchell, R. (2002). An interview with Richard A. Isay, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(4):85-96.

Rosario, V.A. (2002). An interview with Martha J. Kirkpatrick, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):85-98.

Rosario, V.A. (2003). An interview with Judd Marmor, MD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7(4):23-34.

Roughton, R. (2002). Being gay and becoming a psychoanalyst:  Across three generations.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):31-43.   

Sbordone, A.J. (2003). An interview with Charles Silverstein, PhD.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 7(4):49-61.

Scasta, D.L. (2002). John E. Fryer, MD, and the Dr. H. Anonymous episode.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(4):73-84.

Vaughan, S. (2002). Discussion of “Being gay and becoming a psychoanalyst:  Across three generations.”  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1):67-75.



DeCecco J., ed. (1985). Bashers, Baiters & Bigots:  Homophobia in American Society.  New York:  Harrington Park Press.  

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (2000). Homosexuality and the Mental Health Professions:  The Impact of Bias.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.  

Herek, G.M. (1984). Beyond homophobia:  A social psychological perspective on the attitudes towards lesbians and gay men.  J. Homosexuality, 10:1-21.

Herek, G.M. (1990). The context of anti-gay violence:  Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism.  J. Interpersonal Violence, 5:316-333.  

Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (1992). Hate Crimes:  Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men.  Newbury Park, CA:  Sage Publications.  

Hoffman, L. G., Hevesi, A.G., Lynch, P.E., Gomes, P.J., Chodorow, N.J., Roughton, R.E., Frank, B. & Vaughan, S. (2000). Homophobia:  Analysis of a “permissible” prejudice:  A public forum of the American Psychoanalytic Association and the American Psychoanalytic Foundation.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 4(1):5-53.

Malyon, A.K. (1982). Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men.  J. Homosexuality, 7(2/3):59-69.  

Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129:674–697.

Moss, D. (1992). Introductory thoughts:  Hating in the first person plural:  The example of homophobia.  American Imago, 49:277-291.  

Moss, D. (1997). On Situating Homophobia.  J. American Psychoanalytic Association, 45(1):201-215. 



American Academy of Pediatrics (2002). Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Pediatrics, 109 (2): 339-340.

American Psychiatric Association, (1974). Position statement on homosexuality and civil rights.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 131(4):497.

American Psychiatric Association (2005). Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage:  Position Statement.  Retrieved from, January 3, 2009.   

Jones, F. &  Koshes, R. (1995). Homosexuality and the military.  American J. Psychiatry, 152:16-21, .  

Perrin, E.C. (2002). American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report: Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Pediatrics, 109(2): 341-344.

Wolitski, R.J., Stall, R., & Valdiserri, R.O., (2008). Unequal Opportunity:  Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press.



Blechner, M.J. (1993). Homophobia in psychoanalytic writing and practice.  Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 3:627-637.  

Chodorow, N.J. (1992). Heterosexuality as a compromise formation:  Reflections on the psychoanalytic theory of sexual development.  Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought, 15:267-304.  

Cole, G. (2002). Infecting the Treatment:  The Experience of an HIV-Positive Psychoanalyst.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.  

Corbett, K. (1993). The mystery of homosexuality.  Psychoanalytic Psychology, 10:345-357.  

Corbett, K. (1996). Homosexual boyhood:  Notes on girlyboys.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 1:429-461.  

D’Ercole, A. (1996). Postmodern ideas about gender and sexuality:  The lesbian woman redundancy.  Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, 13(2):142-152.  

D’Ercole, A. & Drescher, J., eds. (2004). Uncoupling Convention:  Psychoanalytic Approaches to Same-Sex Couples and Families.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.  

Domenici, T. & Lesser, R.C., eds. (1995). Disorienting Sexuality:  Psychoanalytic Reappraisals of Sexual Identities.  New York:  Routledge.  

Drescher, J. (1996). A discussion across sexual orientation and gender boundaries:  Reflections of a gay male analyst to a heterosexual female analyst.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 1(2):223-237.  

Drescher, J. (1996). Across the great divide:  Gender panic in the psychoanalytic dyad.  Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, 13(2):174-186.

Drescher, J. (1997). From preoedipal to postmodern:  Changing psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 2(2):203-216.  

Drescher, J. (1998). Psychoanalytic Therapy and the Gay Man.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.  

Drescher, J. (1998). Contemporary psychoanalytic psychotherapy with gay men:  With a commentary on reparative therapy of homosexuality.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 2(4):51-74.  

Drescher, J. (2001). Attending to sexual compulsivity in a gay man.  In:  Hungers and Compulsions:  The Psychodynamic Treatment of Eating Disorders and Addictions, eds. J. Petrucelli & C. Stuart.  Northvale, NJ:  Jason Aronson, pp. 265-279.  

Drescher, J. (2007). From bisexuality to intersexuality:  Rethinking gender categories.  Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 43(2):204-228.   

Friedman, R.C. (1988). Male Homosexuality:  A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective.  New Haven, CT:  Yale University Press.  

Frommer, M.S. (1994). Homosexuality and psychoanalysis:  Technical considerations revisited.  Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 4:215-233.  

Frommer, M.S. (1999). Reflections on self-disclosure, desire, shame and emotional engagement in the gay male psychoanalytic dyad.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 3(1):53-65.  

Glassgold, J.M. & Iasenza, S., eds. (1995). Lesbians and Psychoanalysis:  Revolutions in Theory and Practice.  New York:  The Free Press.  

Glazer, D.F. (1998). Homosexuality and the analytic stance:  Implications for treatment and supervision.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 3(4):397-412. 

Gould, E. & Kiersky, S., eds. (2001). Sexualities Lost and Found:  Lesbians, Psychoanalysis and Culture.  Madison, CT:  International Universities Press.  

Isay, R.A. (1985). On the analytic therapy of homosexual men.  Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 40:235-255.  New Haven, CT:  Yale University Press.  

Isay, R.A. (1989). Being Homosexual:  Gay Men and Their Development.  New York:  Farrar, Straus and Giroux.  

Isay, R.A. (1991). The homosexual analyst:  Clinical considerations. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 46:199-216.  

Isay, R.A. (1996). Becoming Gay:  The Journey to Self-Acceptance.  New York:  Pantheon.

Jones BE, Hill MK, eds. (2002), Mental Health Issues in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Communities. ´╗┐Review of Psychiatry, Volume 21, Number 4, Oldham JM, Riba MB, series editors. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.  

Kernberg, O.F. (2002). Unresolved issues in the psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality and bisexuality.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 6(1)9-27.  

Lesser, R.C. (1993). A reconsideration of homosexual themes.  Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 3:639-641.  

Lesser, R.C. (1996). Category problems:  Lesbians, postmodernism and truth.  Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, 13(2):153-159.  

Lesser, R.C. & Schoenberg, E., eds. (1999). That Obscure Subject of Desire:  Freud’s Female Homosexual Revisited.  New York:  Routledge.  

Lewes, K. (1988). The Psychoanalytic Theory of Male Homosexuality.  New York:  Simon and Schuster.

Lingiardi, V. (2002). Men in Love:  Male Homosexualities from Ganymede to Batman.  Chicago and Lasalle, IL:  Open Court.  

Magee, M. & Miller, D. (1994). Psychoanalysis and women’s experiences of “coming out”:  The necessity of being a bee-charmer.  J. American Academy Psychoanalysis, 22(3):481-504.

Magee, M. & Miller, D. (1996). What sex is an amaryllis?  What gender is lesbian?  Looking for something to hold it all.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 1(2):139-170.  

Magee, M. & Miller, D. (1997). Lesbian Lives:  Psychoanalytic Narratives Old and New.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.  

McDougall, J. (2001). Gender identity and creativity.  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 5(1):5-28.

Mitchell, S.A. (1978). Psychodynamics, homosexuality, and the question of pathology.  Psychiatry, 41:254-263.  

Mitchell, S.A. (1981). The psychoanalytic treatment of homosexuality:  Some technical considerations.  International Review Psycho-Analysis, 8:63-80. 

Mitchell, S.A. (1996). Gender and sexual orientation in the age of post-modernism:  The plight of the perplexed clinician.  Gender & Psychoanalysis, 1:45-73.  

Moor, P. (2001). The view from Irving Bieber’s couch:  “Heads I win, tails you lose.”  J. Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 5(3/4):25-36.

Morgenthaler, F. (1984). Homosexuality Heterosexuality Perversion, trans. A. Aebi.  Ed. P. Moor.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press, 1988.  

O’Connor, N. & Ryan, J. (1993). Wild Desires and Mistaken Identities:  Lesbianism & Psychoanalysis.  New York:  Columbia University.  

Phillips, S.H. (1998). A new analytic dyad:  Homosexual analyst, heterosexual patient.  J. American Psychoanalytic Association, 46:1195-1219.

Phillips, S.H. (2001). The overstimulation of everyday life:  I:  New aspects of male homosexuality.  J. American Psychoanalytic Association, 49:1235-1267.

Phillips, S.H. (2002).          Phillips, S.H. (2002). The overstimulation of everyday life:  II.  Male homosexuality, countertransference, and psychoanalytic treatment.  Annual of Psychoanalysis, 30:131-145.

Roughton, R. (2000). Sometimes a desire is just a desire:  Gay men and their analysts.  Gender & Psychoanalysis. 5(3):259-273.  

Roughton, R. (2002). Rethinking homosexuality:  What it teaches us about psychoanalysis.  Plenary Address.  J. American Psychoanalytic Association, 50:733-763.  

Schafer, R. (1995). The evolution of my views on nonnormative sexual practice.  In:  Disorienting Sexuality:  Psychoanalytic Reappraisals of Sexual Identities, eds. T. Domenici & R.C. Lesser.   New York:  Routledge, pp. 187-202.  

Schaffner, B. (1996). Modifying psychoanalytic methods when treating HIV-positive patients.  J. American Academy Psychoanalysis, 25(1):123-141.  

Schwartz, A.E. (1998). Sexual Subjects:  Lesbians, Gender, and Psychoanalysis.  New York:  Routledge.  

Schwartz, D. (1993). Heterophilia--The love that dare not speak its aim.  Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 3:643-652.  

Sherman, E. (2002). Homoerotic countertransference: The love that dare not speak its name?  Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 12:649-666.

Sherman, E. (2005). Notes from the Margins:  The Gay Analyst’s Subjectivity in the Treatment Setting.  Hillsdale, NJ:  The Analytic Press.



Adams, H.E., Wright, L.W. & Lohr, B.A. (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?  J. Abnormal Psychology, 105(3):440-445.

Bailey, J. & Pillard, R. (1991). A genetic study of male sexual orientation.  Archives General Psychiatry, 48:1089-1096.  

Bartlett, A., Smith, G. & King, M. (2009). The response of mental health professionals to clients seeking help to change or redirect same-sex sexual orientation.  BMC Psychiatry, 9:11.

Bell, A.P. & Weinberg, M.S. (1978). Homosexualities:  A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women.  New York:  Simon and Schuster.  

Bell, A.P., Weinberg, M.S. & Hammersmith S.K. (1981). Sexual Preference:  Its Development in Men and Women.  Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University Press.  

Bem, D. (1996). Exotic becomes erotic:  A developmental theory of sexual orientation.  Psychological Review, 103(2):320-335.  

Byne, W. (1994). The biological evidence challenged.  Scientific American, May, pp. 50-55.  

Byne W. (1995). Science and belief: Psychobiological research on sexual orientation.  In:  Sex, Cells, and Same-Sex Desire:  The Biology of Sexual Preference, eds. J. DeCecco & D. Parker.  New York:  Harrington Park Press, pp. 303-343.

Byne, W. (1997). Why we cannot conclude that sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon.  J. Homosexuality, 34(1):73-80.  

Byne, W. & Parsons, B. (1993). Human sexual orientation:  The biologic theories reappraised. Archives General Psychiatry, 50(3):228-239.  

Byne, W. & Stein, E. (1997). Varieties of biological explanation.  Harvard Gay & Lesbian Review, Winter, pp. 13-15.  

Cochran, S. D. (2001). Emerging issues in research on lesbians’ and gay men’s mental health: Does sexual orientation really matter? American Psychologist, 56: 931-947.

Cochran, S. D., Sullivan, J. G., & Mays, V. M. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and treatment utilization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in a sample of the U. S. population. J. Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71:53-61.

Cochran, S.D. & Mays, V.M. (2008). Prevalence of primary mental health morbidity and suicide symptoms among gay and bisexual men.  In:  Unequal Opportunity:  Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States, eds. R.J. Wolitski, R. Stall & R.O. Valdiserri.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, pp. 97-120.

Ford, C.S. & Beach, F.A. (1951). Patterns of Sexual Behavior.  New York: Harper & Row.  

Garcia-Falgueras A. & Swaab, D.F. (2008). A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus:  Relationship to gender identity.  Brain, 131:3132-3146.

Hamer, D., Hu, S., Magnuson, V., Hu, N. & Pattatucci, A. (1993). A linkage between DNA markers on the X-chromosome and male sexual orientation.  Science, 261:321-327.  

Hooker, E.A. (1957). The adjustment of the male overt homosexual.  J. Projective Techniques, 21:18-31.   

Kinsey, A.C., Pomeroy, W.B. & Martin C.E. (1948). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.  Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.  

Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C. & Gebhard, P. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.  Philadelphia, PA:  Saunders.  

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